Northern Kentucky Law Review
A century ago, Progressive reformers adopted a more modem construction of childhood as a developmental period of innocence, dependence, and vulnerability. They embraced a more scientific understanding of social control - positive criminology - and tried to identify the causes of crime and to treat, rather than to punish, offenders. Reformers combined the new vision of childhood with new insights into criminality to create a judicial-welfare alternative to the adult criminal process. Jurisdiction over dependent as well as delinquent children reflected juvenile courts' broader role as a child-saving welfare agency and not simply a "junior" criminal court.'
Barry C. Feld, A Century of Juvenile Justice: A Work in Progress or a Revolution that Failed?, 34 N. Ky. L. Rev. 189 (2007), available at https://scholarship.law.umn.edu/faculty_articles/301.