Minnesota Law Review
Ideological changes in the cultural conception of children and in strategies of social control during the nineteenth century led to the creation of the juvenile court. At the dawn of the twentieth century, Progressive reformers applied the new theories of social control to the new ideas about childhood and created a social welfare alternative to criminal courts to treat criminal and noncriminal misconduct by youth.
Barry C. Feld, The Transformation of the Juvenile Court, 75 Minn. L. Rev. 691 (1991), available at https://scholarship.law.umn.edu/faculty_articles/293.