Berkeley Journal of Employment and Labor Law
A dramatic shift in the nature of work relationships in the United States has occurred during the past two decades. Long-term employment constituted the predominant model of structuring work relationships well into the 1970s. Since then, American firms increasingly have resorted to a variety of non-traditional work arrangements. These new workers, frequently denominated the "contingent workforce," tend to have a weaker workplace affiliation and a lower expectation of long-term employment.'
Stephen F. Befort, Revisiting the Black Hole of Workplace Regulation: A Historical and Comparative Perspective of Contingent Work, 24 Berkeley J. Emp. & Lab. L. 153 (2003), available at https://scholarship.law.umn.edu/faculty_articles/22.